Long Tractors

In 1948, Long Manufacturing, of Tarboro, North Carolina, began building it's first tractor, aptly named, the Long Model A. It was patterned roughly after a Farmall H, but was powered by a Continental F140 flathead engine, giving it approximately 34 belt horsepower. The rear end and transmission was a Timken unit, the same as used by Cockshutt for their model 30, or Sheppard for their SD3. The Long Model A was only modestly successful during it's heyday, but much sought after by antique tractor collectors today.

The BMC Long Mini 4/25

The Nuffield Long 3/45 4/65

In the late 1960's, Long imported Nuffield tractors from England, and re-decalled them as Long models. Nuffield 4/25's ('Mini' tractors) and 4/65's were among the models Long imported to sell during that period.

Beginning early in the 1970's, Long turned to Universal Tractor Brasov of Romania for it's Universal tractors to import and re-decal as Long tractors. The Universal 350, 445, and 550 became the Long 350, 445, and 550, respectively.( Also during the same period, Long collaborated with Zetor of Czechoslovakia to import their 8011 and 9011, to become the Long 900 and 1100. Later, Long added a larger Zetor to become the 1310.) A Landini R9500 Special became the Long R9500 Special.

The Long 350

The Long 350 was powered by a 3 cylinder, direct injection, 4 main bearing Uzina Diesel engine of 143 cubic inches, coming from a bore and stroke of 95MM x 110MM (3.74" x 4.33"). Running at a 2400 RPM rated speed, the 350 developed 32 PTO HP.

A 6 speed forward, 2 speed reverse, partially synchronized transmission gave ample ground speed selection for a full-sized, low horsepwoer tractor. 6th to 5th, and 3rd to 2nd gears were synchronized, making those downshifts quick and easy. The PTO was live, controlled by a 10 inch, two stage clutch. A differential lock was apparently not offered, even as an option.

The hydraulic system incorporated a 5.75GPM pump, resulting in a three point hitch lift capacity of 2660lbs, roughly 71% of the tractor's shipping weight of 3750 pounds. As expected, with such a lift capacity, front end weights were available as extra cost options. A remote hydraulic valve was optionally available. Being a light weight tractor, power steering wasn't standard equipment, but was optionally available. The power steering pump, when installed, was located behind the hydraulic pump, and underneath the fuel pump on the right hand side of the engine.

A telescopic round tubular front axle, comprised of 3 pieces (4 pieces if the pivot pin is counted), allowed a track width adjustment of 50 3/8 inches to 77 inches through 8 postions. 5.50x16 three rib front tires supported the front, while 12.4x28 or 13.6x28 rear tires provided traction. The rear tread adjustment of 47 to 74 13/16 inches were made available through 8 positions of the offset of the center dish of the rear wheels, and swapping of the rear rims and tires from side to side. Power adjustable rear wheels were an available option, but likely weren't very popular on a tractor that was primarily targetted at a price conscious market. Shell type fenders provided ample protection from the rear wheels and tires.

Braking of the 350 was provided by contracting band style brakes with internal drums. The brake drums and bands were 50MM wide. A hand operated, ratcheting parking brake was available only as an extra cost option.

The 350 being a 'no frills' tractor, headlights and a working light, and even a drawbar were all extra cost options. The 350, did, however, have full instrumentation, including a combination tachometer/hourmeter, and separate temperature and fuel level gages, plus oil pressure and alternator warning lights. The 350 was superceeded by the restyled 360 model in late 1975 or early 1976.

The Long 445

A higher horsepower, better equipped model than the 350 was the Long 445, corresponding with the Universal 445. At a different delivery setting on the CAV fuel injection pump, the 445's Uzina D115, 3 cylinder, 4 main bearing crankshaft, direct injection Diesel delivered 41.9 PTO horsepower at 2400 RPM. The same 95MM x 110MM bore and stroke as the 350 was featured in the 445. All engine parts were interchangable, short of the injection pump, which, as already stated, was only set at a higher flow rate for more power; more fuel burned simply equals more power. A thermostarter intake air preheating system provided quick, reliable starts in cold weather. The air cleaner was an older type, oil bath style. A cyclonic precleaner did greatly increase the service intervals of the oil bath system from every day in 'the old days', to checking the oil level once every 60 hours of operation. Changing was only required once a year, or when sediment in the air cleaner cup reached 1 CM deep. Access to the air cleaner was quick and easy through a lift-off grille. No tools were required to remove the grille or check the air cleaner cup.

Speaking of grilles, the sheet metal styling of the Long 445 was the same as the Long 350, other than the fenders, which will be described further below. Access to the engine was provided through a side opening hood, which was secured by two over center locking, chrome handled latches. An autmatically setting prop held the hood open for hands free servicing.

The same transmission as the 350 was incorporated in the 445; 6 speeds forward and 2 speeds reverse were provided on one dual range shifter. Synchromesh shifting was provided between 6th & 5th gears in high range, and 3rd and 2nd in low range. In both tractors, locking of the shifter in any selected gear was defeated to shift by rocking or tilting the shift lever slightly to the left before attempting to move it out of any gear. A differential lock, while apparently not available on the 350, was standard equipment on the 445.

A 10 inch, two stage, organic plate clutch gave the 445 a live PTO; depressing the clutch pedal halfway stopped forward motion of the tractor, but left the PTO fully engaged to clear slugs in the driven machine. Depressing the pedal the rest of the way stopped the PTO, also. This provided a welcome, 'hands free' control of PTO driven equipment.

The same telescoping, 8 position, round tube front axle as the 350 provided the 445 with relatively easy track adjustments 50 3/8" to 77". The 445 was supported on 6.00x16 three rib front tires, and 13.6x28 inch (14.9x28 optional) rears, which were non-power adjustable. Adjustment of the rears was achieved through alternate settings of the concave/convex center disc, and the rims and tires location on one side of the tractor or the other. Rear track adjustment was from 47 to 74 13/16 inches. Power adjustable rear wheels were an available option. Also optional, was turf tire equipment for the 445; 7.50x16 front and fat 18.4x16A rear turf tires, made the 445 a very practical golf course tractor.

Differing from the 350, the 445 was also available in a 4 wheel drive unit, providing 40% more available traction on loose surfaces. A 'side drive', non-planetary reduction, slip clutch-protected front axle was provided in the 445 4WD. 14.9x28 rears and 7.5x20 fronts were the only tire sizes available with the front wheel assist option. Power steering was an option on either 2 or 4 wheel drive models, but was popular on the 4WD models due to the extra steering effort required by the heavier front end weight, and increased 'footprint' and adhesion of the tractor grip front tires.

The 445 shared the same instrumentation as the 350. Headlights and worklights were standard equipment on the 445. Larger, more protective fenders were provided on the 445 than the 350; flat top, semi-rounded fenders completely isolated the operator from the rear tires on the Long 445, and provided comfortable arm rests, also.

Braking was provided by the same 50MM contracting band and internal drums as the Long 350, however, differing from the 350, the 445 offered a ratcheting hand parking brake as standard equipment. The two foot pedals were lockable for road travel.

The Long 445, beginning as the Universal 445, which itself was patterned from the Fiat 450, was the same tractor as the earlier Oliver 1250-A and 1255 tractors, and the later Allis Chalmers 5040. The association of all these models is shown in the graphic below. The restyled Long 460 replaced the 445 in late 1975 or early 1976.

The Long 550

Offered during the same period as the 350 and 445, the Long 550 was a four cylinder tractor of 53.6 PTO horsepower. This power was developed through a bore and stroke of 95MM x 110MM; the same as the smaller 350 and 445. Effectively, but for one exception, the 550 was a 350 or 445 with nother cylinder added on. The difference, however, was the fact that the 550 used two cylinder heads, instead of one. The cylinder block was cast in one piece, though. Early model 550's came with an unbalanced engine; that is, without a crankshaft balancing unit, but later 550's incorporated a unitized balancer assembly of two counter-rotating... well, rotors, much like a belt driven supercharger, and geared to run at twice the crankshaft speed. This balancer assembly cancelled out the vibrations inherant in a reciprocating engine. There was a field installed conversion kit available for the early models not so factory equipped. Five main bearings held the crankshaft in rigid alignment.

A CAV injection system handled fuel delivery in the 550's fuel efficient engine. Like the smaller 350 & 445, the 550 had a thermostarter system as standard equipment, making frosty morning starts a snap. Also like it's smaller stablemates, the 550 had a full flow lubricating system, with a spin-on, disposable filter making oil changes faster and cleaner.

In a departure from the smaller 350 and 445, the Long 550 had a new sheet metal styling, giving it a squared off look, with simpler body lines. The instrument panel, while the cluster itself was the same as the 350 & 445, was now mounted in a new, plastic pod in a higher position, for easier monitoring. The 550 did incorporate, however, the distinctively European style, outboard, grille mounted, Siem headlight units of the 445. The fenders of the 550 were the same as the 445, being semi-rounded, flat top units.

Between the fenders, however, the 550's transmission differed greatly from the 350 and 445. In place of the single stick, 6 speed forward, 2 speed reverse unit of the smaller, 3 cylinder 350 and 445, was a twin stick, 8 speed forward, 2 speed reverse, partially synchronized unit. Also included in the package was an independant PTO, controlled by a hand operated, 11 inch clutch, over the 10 inch, two stage clutch of the smaller tractors. A foot operated, automatically disengaging differential lock was standard equipment, also.

The hydraulic system of the 550 used the same size of pump as the smaller tractors, and resulted in a lift of 2660 lbs, the same as the smaller units. Owing to it's larger size and weight, power steering was standard equipment on the 550. Also steering related, the front axle was the same basic telescopic unit as used on the 350 & 445 tractors, but, due to different front wheels, resulted in a front track adjustment of 52 to 79 inches in 8 increments, on 7.50x16 front tires. Rear track adjustment was the same 47 to 74 13/16 inch spread as the smaller tractors. Rear tire equipment was 14.9x28 standard, and 16.9x28 and even 18.4x28 optional. Bare weight of the 550 2WD tractor was 4510 lbs. While not officially offered, 550 tractors were available with a side driven, non-planetary reduction, front wheel assist axle. Like the 445, this adaptation allowed only a set combination of front and rear tires to maintain proper ratio between the front and rear axles, and that combination was 7.50x20 fronts and 14.9x28 rears.

Brakes on the 550 were similar, but wider units than the 350 & 445, at 56MM wide. A ratcheting hand operated parking brake was factory equipment, as was the lockable brake pedals, providing safer road speed stops.

The Long 560 replaced the 550 in late 1974.

Long Tractors Part II

Parts for Long Tractors